Theory of Yin and Yang
What is Yin and Yang?

Yin and yang is the basic law of the universe.

These two fundamental forces of the universe exist in all things ever opposing and supplementing.

Interdependent on each other, relatively waxing and waning, also inter transforming into each other.

These opposite pairs show that yin and yang exist within all the phenomena’s. Yin and yang not only oppose but also contain each other, without the other, neither can exits.

Yang Yin
The place being exposed to the sun The place not being exposed to the sun
Southern side of a mountain Northern side of mountain
Heaven Earth
Outside Inside
Movement Stability
Going out Coming in
Day Night
Heat Cold
Rising Falling
A. How to explain the interdependency?

Functional movements are yang and the Nourishing substance are yin, if the intestines and other internal organs do not move, "nourishing substance" cannot be digested or absorbed; and if over a long period "nourishing substances" are not provided, the organs cease to move.

The book, Canon of Medicine says: "Yin in the interior is the guardian of yang, and yang in the exterior is the activator of yin". This also shows the relationship of interdependence between yin and yang.

B. What is meant by the waxing and waning of yin and yang?

Yin and yang opposing each other and yet depending on each other for existence, they are not stagnant but in a dynamic state, i.e., while yin wanes, yang waxes, and vice versa. This dynamic change of succeeding each other between yin and yang is known as the waxing and waning of yin and yang.

C. What is transformation?

By "transformation" it means yin and yang will transform into each other under certain conditions. For instance, in the course of suffering from a disease, the patient runs a high fever, has a red complexion, feels irritable and restless, But all of a sudden, he feels listless, his temperature becomes lower, his face turns pale. This is an example of transformation between yin and yang.

Yang Yin
Hyper functional Restricted or hypo function
Excited and waxing Inactive and waning
Hot Cold
Moving Steady
Strong Weak
Bright Dark
Invisible Visible
Light and clear Heavy and turbid
Upwards and outwards Downwards and inwards

It should be pointed out that the yin or yang property of things is not absolute but relative. This relativity of yin and yang is shown in the inter transformation between yin and yang as mentioned above.

It is also shown in the constant divisibility of yin and yang, i.e., either yin or yang can be still divided into another pair of yin and yang. For instance, day is of yang nature and night is of yin nature, but both day and night can be further divided like: the period from dawn till noon is the yang aspect of yang; and the period from noon till dusk is the yin aspect of yang; the period from dusk till midnight is the yin aspect of yin; the period from midnight till dawn is the yang aspect of yin.

It is used to explain the tissues and structures, physiology and pathology of the human body, and also to the clinical diagnosis and treatment.

D. Using Yin and Yang to Explain the Tissues and Structures of the Human Body
Yang Yin
Outsides Inside
Exterior Interior
Dorsal Ventral
Upper part Lower part
Back Front
Lateral aspect of the extremities The medial aspect
Six bowels organs, i.e., the gall bladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder and triple warmer, are yang because their functions of transmitting and digesting water and food tend to be active Five viscera, i.e., the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney, because their functions of preserving vital substance tend to be stable
Every organ, the function The substance
Vital energy (Qi) Blood

The relationship between yin and yang also remains constant among the five viscera the heart and lung are yang, because of being higher, while the liver, spleen and kidneys are yin, because of being lower. When speaking of yin and yang of the channels and collaterals, the channels may be divided into channels belonging to yin and yang channels, Collaterals can also be classified as yin collaterals and yang collaterals.

Out of the twelve channels, three are three yang channels of the hand and three yin channels of hand, three yang channels of the foot and three yin channels of the foot. Vital energy (qi) is yang, blood is yin.

E. Using yin and yang to explain the physiological function of the human body.

Normal physiological functions of the human body result from the opposite, unitive and coordinate relation between yang (function) and yin (substance). Yin and yang are always in the state of dynamic balance it is known as “Yin is even and well while yang is firm, hence a relative equilibrium is maintained and health is guaranteed”.

Physiological function is based on substance, without substance, including essence of life, blood; constructive energy and body fluid, there would be no source for functions. But the metabolism of substance must depend on the performance of function. If yin and yang of the human body separate from each other and cannot aid each other life will come to an end. This is what is called, "the divorce of yin and yang means the end of one's life."

F. Using yin and yang to explain the pathological changes of human body.

Imbalance of yin and yang is one of the basic pathogeneses of a disease. For example, preponderance of yang leads to hyper function of the organism and heat manifestations, while preponderance of yin leads to hypo function of the organism or endogenous cold.

Deficiency of yang brings, on symptoms of external cold, while deficiency of yin as the result of exhausted vital essence leads to endogenous heat.

Yang in excess makes yin suffer, while yin in excess makes yang suffer. In severe damage of yang, yin is involved, in severe damage of yin, yang is involved too. Thus, yin and yang are both damaged.

A case of yin nature (hypo function) in its extreme may show yang (hyper function) symptoms and signs, while a case of yang nature (hyper function) in its extreme will give rise to yin (hypo function) symptoms and signs

G. Using Yin and Yang to Diagnose and Treat Diseases.

Because one of the basic pathogeneses of a disease is the imbalance of yin and yang, any disease, no matter how intricate and volatile its clinical manifestations can be diagnosed with the theory of yin and yang.

Yang Yin
Location Exterior Interior
Nature Heat Sthenia
Cold Asthenia
Observation, complexion of patient Bright Dark and gloomy
Listening / Smelling Loud and clear voice Low and weak voice
Inquiring Have fever, feel thirsty and have constipation Have aversion to cold, don’t feel thirsty, have loose stools

In making a diagnosis, the first important thing is to ascertain whether the disease is yin or yang.

Contact : Dr Nilima Thakkar : 982 0676 600